Aim: understand the rules of quoting in academic
writing and how to integrate quotations when writing an essay or article.
A quotation is when one reproduces the original
words used by an author.
Short quotations (from a single word up to one or two lines) are handled
differently from longer quotations. The following extract contains both
short and long:
interviews are essentially about ascertaining facts or beliefs
out there in the world. While it is acknowledged that interviewers
interact with their subjects, such interaction is strictly defined
by the research protocol. Consequently, positivits only become
seriously interested in interviewer-interviewee interaction
when it can be shown that interviewers have departed from the
protocol (Brenner:1981). Conversely, for interactionists, interviews
are essentially about symbolic interaction: 'I wish to treat
the interview as an observational encounter. An encounter ...
represents the coming together of two or more persons for the
purpose of focused interaction' (Denzin: 1970, 133)
the topìc addressed by the questions, interviews are
social events based on mutual participant observation.
must be viewed, then, as social events in which the interviewer
(and for that matter the interviewee) is a participant observer...
Interview data, like any other, must be interpreted against
the background of the content in which they were produced.
(Hammersley and Atkinson: 1983, 126)
for interactionists, the social context of the interview is
intrinsic to understanding any data that are obtained. While
positivists aim for a clear-cut distinction between research
interviews and other forms of social interaction, interactionists
argue that that aim is unobtainable.
D. (1993). Interpreting Qualitative Data. Methods for Analysing
Talk, Text and Interaction. London: Sage Publications: 94
- What differences are there between the styles used for short and
Sometimes you may want to omit words (as in the extract above) or whole
sentences from a passage you are quoting.
- Can you suggest reasons for doing so?
- Do you know the conventional way of showing omissions in quotations?
Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence.
Longer quotations can stand alone. Quoting should be done for a reason;
be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when
you decide to do so. There are four common reasons for quoting
from your sources:
Note that academic convention demands that when you quote you should
also state the page number on which the original text is found.
The above extract also contains a paraphrase
positivits only become seriously interested in interviewer-interviewee
interaction when it can be shown that interviewers have departed from
the protocol (Brenner:1981).[...]
To understand the differences between a paraphrase, a summary and a
quotation, follow the link below:
Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
In LISAM you can also have some practice on summaries